Publications

Paul’s research centers on the theoretical and empirical study of software and game development, including projects, processes, practices, tools and developer cognition, socialization, productivity, creativity, wellbeing and effectiveness. A list of publications, organized by subject, follows.

Software Design and Project Management

Mohanani, R. Ram, P., Lasisi, A., Ralph, P. & Turhan, B. (2017) Perceptions of creativity in software engineering research and practice. Proceedings of Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications. Vienna, Austria: IEEE, August-September. [Preprint]
Sedano, T., Ralph, P. & Péraire, C. (2017) Software development waste. Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering. Buenos Aires, Argentina: IEEE, May. [Preprint]
Ralph, P. (2016) Software engineering process theory: A multi-method comparison of Sensemaking-Coevolution-Implementation Theory and Function-Behavior-Structure Theory, Information and Software Technology (70), p. 232-250. [Preprint]
Tempero, E. & Ralph, P. (2016) A Model for defining coupling metrics. Proceedings of the 23rd Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference. Hamilton, New Zealand: IEEE, December. (Best Paper Award) [Preprint]
Sedano, T., Ralph, P. & Peraire, C. (2016) Sustainable software development through Overlapping Peer Rotation. Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement. Ciudad Real, Spain: September. [Preprint]
Ralph, P. & Tempero, E. (2016) Characteristics of decision-making during coding. Proceedings of the International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering. Limerick, Ireland: ACM, June. [Preprint]
Ralph, P., Chiasson, M., & Kelley, H. (2016) Social theory for software engineering research. Proceedings of the International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering. Limerick, Ireland: ACM, June. [Preprint]
Sedano, T., Ralph, P. & Peraire, C. (2016) Practice and perception of team code ownership. Proceedings of the International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering. Limerick, Ireland: ACM, June. [Preprint]
Exman, I., Perry, D.E., Barn, B. & Ralph, P. (2016). Separability principles for a general theory of software engineering: Report on the GTSE 2015 workshop. SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes (41:1), p. 25–27. [Preprint]
Wufka, M. & Ralph, P. (2015) Explaining agility with a process theory of change. Proceedings of Agile 2015, Washington D.C., USA, August. [Preprint]
Ralph, P. (2015) The Sensemaking-Coevolution-Implementation theory of software design. Science of Computer Programming (101), p. 21-41. [Preprint]
Shreeve, B., Sawyer, P., Ralph, P. & Stacey, P. (2015). Geographically distributed sensemaking: developing understanding in forum-based software development teams. Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering, Florence, May. [Preprint]
Ralph, P. & Mohanani, R. (2015). Is requirements engineering inherently counterproductive? Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on the Twin Peaks of Requirements and Architecture, Florence, May. [Preprint]
Ralph, P., Exman, I., Ng, P.-W., Johnson, P., Goedicke, M., Kocatas, A. T., & Yan, K. L. (2014). How to develop a general theory of software engineering: Report on the GTSE 2014 workshop. SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes (39:6), p. 23-25. [Preprint]
Ralph, P., & Kelly, P. (2014). The Dimensions of software engineering success. In Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Software Engineering, Hyderabad, India: ACM, June. [Preprint]
Mohanani, R., Ralph, P., & Shreeve, B. (2014). Requirements fixation. In Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Software Engineering, Hyderabad, India: ACM, June. [Preprint]
Johnson, P., Ralph, P., Goedicke, M., Ng, P.-W., Stol, K.-J., Smolander, K., Exman, I., Perry, D. 2013. Report on the second SEMAT workshop on a general theory of software engineering (GTSE 2013)SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes (38:5), p. 47-50. [Preprint]
Ralph, P. (2013) The Illusion of requirements in software developmentRequirements Engineering, (18:3), p. 293-296. [Preprint]
Ralph, P., Johnson, P., & Jordan, H. (2013) Report on the first SEMAT workshop on a general theory of software engineering (GTSE 2012)SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes (38:3), p. 26-28. [Preprint]
Ralph, P. & Narros, E. (2013) Complexity, process and agility in small development teams: An exploratory case study. In Proceedings of the Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Jeju Island, South Korea: AIS, June. [Video]
Ralph, P. & Shportun, P. (2013). Scrum abandonment in distributed teams: a revelatory case. In Proceedings of the Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Jeju Island, South Korea: AIS, June. [Video]
Ralph, P. (2013). Possible core theories for software engineeringThe SEMAT Workshop on a General Theory of Software Engineering, International Conference on Software Engineering, San Francisco, CA, USA, May. [Video]
Ralph, P. (2012) Sensemaking-Coevolution-Implementation Theory: a model of the software engineering process in practiceThe 2012 SEMAT Workshop on a General Theory of Software Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden, November. [Video]
Ralph, P. (2011) Introducing an empirical model of design. In Proceedings of the 6th Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Limassol, Cyprus: AIS, September.
Ralph, P. (2011) Toward a theory of debiasing software development. In Proceedings of the SIGSAND/PLAIS EuroSymposium, Springer LNBIP 93, pp 92–105. [Video] [Preprint] (Best Paper Award)
Ralph, P. (2010) Comparing two software design process theories. Proceedings of the International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, St. Gallen, Switzerland: Springer LNCS 6105, pp. 61-76. [Preprint] (Best Student Paper Award)
Ralph, P. (2010) Toxic concepts in systems analysis and design: The systems development lifecycle. The Ninth Symposium on Research in Systems Analysis and Design, St. John’s, Canada, May.
Ralph, P. (2010) Fundamentals of software design science, Doctoral Dissertation, Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 177 Pages.
Ralph, P. (2009) Investigating the software design process. International Conference on Information Systems, Phoenix, AZ, USA, Dec. Doctoral Consortium.
Ralph, P. (2009) Investigating the software design process. The Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology Conference, Philadelphia, PA, USA, May. Doctoral Consortium. (Accepted but could not attend.)
Ralph, P. & Wand, Y. (2009) A Proposal for a formal definition of the design concept. In Lyytinen, K., Loucopoulos, P., Mylopoulos, J., and Robinson, W., (Eds.): Design Requirements Engineering: A Ten-Year Perspective (LNBIP 14): Design Requirements Workshop 2007 Revised and Invited Papers, pp. 103-136. Springer-Verlag. [Preprint]
Ralph, P. & Wand, Y. (2008) A Teleological process theory of software development. Journal of the Association of Information Systems Theory Development Workshop, International Conference on Information Systems, Paris, France, December.
Ralph, P. & Wand, Y. (2007) An Ontology of design concepts. Journal of the Association of Information Systems Theory Development Workshop, International Conference on Information Systems, Montreal, QC, Canada, December.
Ralph, P. & Wand, Y. (2007) Towards a formal definition of design. Proceedings of the Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology Conference, Pasadena, CA, USA, May.

Game Design

Scott Macdonald, H., Yin, B., Wye, D., Hall, B. & Ralph, P. (2017) Increasing the emotionality of horror games with infrasound. Proceedings of the 10th Digital Games Research Association Conference. Melbourne, Australia: Digital Games Research Association, July. [Preprint]
Ralph, P., & Monu, K. (2017) Enduring design challenges in western roleplaying video games. The Journal of Creative Technologies (6), Article 4.
Monu, K. & Ralph, P. (2016) Designing the “appeal” of educational games. Proceedings of the Americas Conference on Information Systems. San Diego, California, USA: AIS, August.
Tan, J., Kumar, R., & Ralph, P. (2016) Blending high-immersion gameplay and high-intensity exercise with asynchronous exergaming. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Games and Software Engineering, Austin, Texas: ACM, May.
Ralph, P. & Monu, K. (2015) Contemporary challenges in the design of western role-playing games, The Creative Gaming Conference, Auckland, New Zealand, September.
Ralph, P. & Monu, K. (2015) Toward a unified theory of digital games. The Computer Games Journal (4:1), 81-100, 10.1007/s40869-015-0007-7. [Preprint]
Ralph, P. & Monu, K. (2014) A working theory of game designFirst Person Scholar, June 11.  [Preprint]
Amir, B., & Ralph, P. (2014). Proposing a theory of gamification effectiveness. Companion Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Software Engineering, Hyderabad, India, June, ACM.
Monu, K., & Ralph, P. (2013). Implications of gameful design for the IS discipline. Workshop on Information Technology and Systems, International Conference on Information Systems, Milan, Italy, December. [Preprint]

Research Methods

Sedano, T., Ralph, P. & Péraire, C. (2017) Lessons learned from an extended participant observation grounded theory study. Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry. Buenos Aires, Argentina: IEEE, May. [Preprint]
Stol, K., Ralph, P. & Fitzgerald, B. (2016) Grounded theory research in software engineering: A critical review and guidelines Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Software Engineering. Austin, Texas: ACM, May. [Preprint]
Ralph, P. (2016) Practical suggestions for improving scholarly peer review quality and reducing cycle times. Communications of the AIS, 38, Article 18. [Preprint]
Ralph, P. (2015) Developing and evaluating software engineering process theories. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering. Florence, Italy: IEEE, May. [Preprint]
Ralph, P. (2014). Lab-based action design research. In Companion Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Software Engineering, Hyderabad, India: ACM, June. [Preprint]
Ralph, P. (2014). Evaluating process theories in software engineeringThe 3rd SEMAT Workshop on General Theories of Software Engineering, International Conference on Software Engineering, Hyderabad, India, June: ACM.

Education

Ralph P. (2012) Improving coverage of design in information systems education. In Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Information Systems, Orlando, FL, USA: AIS, December. [Video] [Preprint]
Ralph, P. (2012) Improving coverage of design in information systems education. The Eleventh Symposium on Research in Systems Analysis and Design, Vancouver, Canada, June.

Recommender Systems

Parsons, J. and Ralph, P. (2014) Generating effective online recommendations using viewing-time weighted preferences for attributesJournal of the Association for Information Systems, (15:8), p. 484-513. [Preprint]
Parsons, J. & Ralph, P. (2010) System and method for estimating user ratings from user behavior and providing recommendations. United States Patent: 7756879. July 13.
Ralph, P. & Parsons, J. (2008) A System for recommending items based on viewing-time-weighted preferences for attributes. The Winter Conference on Business Intelligence, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, March.
Parsons, J. & Ralph, P. (2007) Generating effective recommendations by exploiting viewing time and item attributes. Proceedings of the Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology Conference, Pasadena, CA, USA, May. [Preprint]
Parsons, J. & Ralph, P. (2007) Addressing challenges in inferring preferences from current-session dataProceedings of the Statistical Challenges in eCommerce Research Symposium, Stamford, Connecticut, USA, May.
Ralph, P. & Parsons, J. (2006) A Framework for automatic online personalization. In Proceedings of 39th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Poipu, Kauai, Hawaii: IEEE. [Preprint]
Parsons, J., Ralph, P. & Gallagher K. (2004) Using viewing time to infer user preference in recommender systems. The AAAI 2004 Workshop on Semantic Web Personalization, San Jose, July. [Preprint]
Parsons, J., Gallagher. K. & Ralph, P. (2002) Inferring preferences from viewing time: Implications for the design of electronic catalogs. INFORMS Annual Meeting, San Jose, California, November.

Guest Columns and Editorials

Ralph, P. (27 April 2017) Facebook’s new anti-fake news strategy is not going to work – but something else might. The Conversation. Republished by The Huffington Post.
Ralph, P. (6 March 2017) How to protect your private data when you travel to the United States. The Conversation. Republished by The New Zealand Herald and Sciblogs.
Ralph, P. (23 June 2015) Why universities should get rid of PowerPoint and why they won’t. The Conversation. Republished by Business Insider, Lifehacker and The New Zealand Herald.
Ralph, P. (14 April 2014) Heartbleed patched but security time bomb is still ticking. The Conversation. Republished by Lifehacker.
Ralph, P. (13 November 2013) Obamacare web fiasco won’t be the last big IT fail. The Conversation. Republished by Delimiter.
Ralph, P. (July 2013) Does cognitive bias kill creativity? Website Magazine.
Ralph, P. (8 April 2013) Why system requirements are a dangerous illusion. SD Times.
Ralph, P. (24 August 2012) Why are marketers’ attempts at gamification focused on meaningless points? The Wall.
Ralph, P. (21 August 2012) Too lame, not enough game: Why marketers are failing at gamification. The Drum.

Selected Working Papers

Ralph, P. The Two paradigms of software design, 38 pages. Preprint available from arXiv and SSRN.
Monu, K. & Ralph, P. Beyond Gamification: Implications of purposeful games for the information systems discipline, 8 pages. Preprint available from arXiv.